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Editorial Policies

Manuscripts are examined by the editor and usually evaluated by peer reviewers assigned by the editor. Both clinical and basic articles will also be subject to statistical review when appropriate. Provisional or final acceptance is based on originality, scientific content, and topical balance of the journal. Manuscript decisions are based on the results of peer review, and to ensure that the process is unbiased, reviewers receive manuscripts with blind title pages. Decisions are communicated by e-mail, generally within 8 weeks. All rebuttals must be submitted in writing to the editorial office. Descriptions appearing in each article are the responsibility of the author and not of Neurointervention. The editorial board will continuously work to monitor publication ethics and check manuscripts to confirm originality.

Research and Publication Ethics

Conflict of Interest
Conflict of interest exists when an author or the author’s institution, reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence or bias his or her actions. Such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties. These relationships vary from being negligible to having a great potential for influencing judgment. Not all relationships represent true conflict of interest. On the other hand, the potential for conflict of interest can exist regardless of whether an individual believes that the relationship affects his or her scientific judgment. Financial relationships such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, and paid expert testimony are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal, the authors, or of the science itself. Conflicts can occur for other reasons as well, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion (http://www.icmje.org/conflicts-of-interest/). If there are any conflicts of interest, authors should disclose them in the manuscript. The conflicts of interest may occur during the research process as well; however, it is important to provide disclosure. If there is a disclosure, editors, reviewers, and reader can approach the manuscript after understanding the situation and the background of the completed research.
Authorship Criteria
Neurointervention defines an “author” as a person whose participation in the work is sufficient for taking public responsibility for all portions of the content. To be listed as an author at byline, an individual has to meet all four categories established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authors-and-contributors.html): (1) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; (2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) Final approval of the version to be published; and (4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work by ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

If any persons do not meet the above criteria, they may be placed as contributors in the Acknowledgments section. Description of co-first authors or co-corresponding authors is also accepted, if the corresponding author believes that they equally contributed to the article. The corresponding author takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process, and typically ensures that all the journal’s administrative requirements, such as providing details of authorship, ethics committee approval, clinical trial registration documentation, and gathering conflict of interest forms and statements, are properly completed, although these duties may be delegated to one or more coauthors. Neurointervention does not allow adding authors or changing the first or the corresponding authors once its decision of ‘Accept as it is’ is made. If any author wishes to be removed from the byline, he or she should submit a letter signed by the author, as well as all other authors, indicating his or her wish to be deleted from the list of authors. Any change in the name order in the byline requires a letter signed by all authors indicting agreement with the same.
Publication and Research Ethics and Allegations of Misconduct
Neurointervention, adheres to the guidelines and best practices published by professional organizations, including ICMJE Recommendations and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by the Committee on Publication Ethics [COPE], http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines; the Directory of Open Access Journals; the World Association of Medical Editors [WAME], http://wame.org/recommendations-on-publication-ethics-policiesfor-medical-journals and Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association; https://doaj.org/bestpractice).
Furthermore, all processes of handling research and publication misconduct shall follow the applicable COPE flowchart (https://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts).

Manuscripts involving examinations of volunteers and patients must include a statement that the trial protocol has been approved by an institutional ethics review board (IRB) and that the subjects gave informed consent in accordance with the standards of the Declaration of Helsinki in its revised version that the World Medical Association has developed as a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, including research on identifiable human material and data (http://www.wma.net). Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication. Human subjects should not be identifiable, such that patients’ names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, or other protected healthcare information should not be disclosed.

For animal experiments, it is expected that investigators will adhere to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Academy of Science; http://dels.nas.edu/) and should get approval from the Animal Care Committee of the institution where the study took place. Informed consent should be obtained for any case report from every patient (or parent or guardian) regardless of whether or not it contains identifying information. If you are unable to obtain a consent form, it is recommended to receive IRB exemption.

For policies on any issues of research and publication ethics not stated in these instructions, the Guidelines on Good Publication (http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) should be applied. The content of each article is the responsibility of the authors and not of Neurointervention.
Originality and Duplicate Publication
Neurointervention only accepts manuscripts describing original research. The editorial office of Neurointervention does not accept duplicate submission or redundant publication. Redundant (or duplicate) publication is publication of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published in print or electronic media as defined by updated ICMJE guidelines regarding allegations of scientific misconduct. If authors believe their manuscript may be redundant, they should ask about this in a letter to the editor accompanying their submission.
In that letter, they should explain how their report overlaps with already published material, or how it differs. To help the editor determine the possibility of redundant publication, a copy of such published material may also be included. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.

Manuscripts under review or published by other journals will not be accepted for publication in Neurointervention, and articles published in this journal are not allowed to be reproduced in whole or in part in any type of publication without permission of the Editorial Board. Figures and tables can be used freely if original source is verified according to Creative Commons Non-Commercial License. It is mandatory for all authors to resolve any copyright issues when citing a figure or table from a different journal that is not open access.
Process to Manage the Research and Publication Misconduct
When the Journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fraudulent or fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problem with a submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author’s idea or data, complaints against editors, and etc., The resolving process will be followed by flowchart provided by the COPE (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The discussion and decision on the suspected cases are done by Editorial Board.
How Neurointervention Handle Complaints and Appeals
The policy of Neurointervention is primarily aimed at protecting the authors, reviewers, editors, and the publisher of the journal. If not described below, the process of handling complaints and appeals follows the guidelines of the Committee of Publication Ethics available from: https://publicationethics.org/appeals.
Who Complains or Makes an Appeal?
Submitters, authors, reviewers, and readers may register complaints and appeals in a variety of cases as follows: falsification, fabrication, plagiarism, duplicate publication, authorship dispute, conflict of interest, ethical treatment of animals, informed consent, bias or unfair/inappropriate competitive acts, copyright, stolen data, defamation, and legal problem. If any individuals or institutions want to inform the cases, they can send a letter via the contact page on our website: https://neurointervention.org/about/contact.php.
For the complaints or appeals, concrete data with answers to all factual questions (who, when, where, what, how, why) will be provided.
Who is Responsible to Resolve and Handle Complaints and Appeals?
The Editor, Editorial Board, or Editorial Office is responsible for them. A legal consultant or ethics editor may be able to help with the decision making.
What may be the Consequence of Remedy?
It depends on the type or degree of misconduct. The consequence of resolution will follow the guidelines of the Committee of Publication Ethics (COPE).
Copyright
The copyright of published manuscripts is held by the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology. The authors must remember that the use of data, tables, figures, or videos (except for lectures) published in the Neurointervention without written permission of the copyright holder is plagiarism, even if the authors use material from papers they have authored and had published in the Neurointervention. This is identical to the Creative Commons (Attribution-Noncommercial) license available at http://creativecommons.org.
The Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology requires the Copyright Transfer Agreement be faxed, scanned as a PDF and emailed, or mailed to the editorial office. Hand-written signatures are required. Each author must read and sign the statements in the Copyright Transfer Agreement.
Clinical Trial Registration
Neurointervention requires investigators to register their clinical trials (other than phase 1 or small device feasibility trials) in a public trials registry. This requirement will lessen the chance of publication bias by making all trials (published or unpublished) available to clinicians, investigators, and the public, even those that are negative or reflect unfavorably on a re- search sponsor’s product.
  • Low-Dose Fluoroscopy Protocol for Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography. Neurointervention. 2020;15:67-73


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